Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius) is plant from the Asteraceae (Sunflower) family, and native to Asia, the Middle East, and Africa. Safflower is a deep tap root crop with an above ground architecture similar to a thistle. Safflower is extremely drought tolerant. The safflower flower was traditionally used as a clothing and food dye. In recent years safflower has seed has been crushed and made into and edible oil or sold as whole seeds for bird food.
Collins, H.P., A. Hang, W.L. Pan, and R. Cochran. 2012. Safflower Oilseed Production Under Deficit Irrigation and Variable N Fertilization. Poster presentation at Northwest Bioenergy Research Symposium. Seattle, WA. Nov. 13, 2012.